Resilient back-propagation (RPROP) is a neural network training algorithm — you present a neural network with training data that has known, correct output values (for a given set of input values) and then RPROP finds the value of the network’s weights and biases. Then you can use the trained model to make predictions for new, previously unseen input data values.
The most common neural network training algorithm is back-propagation, which however, has many variations — regularization, norm constraints, dropout, batch / online / mini-batch, and so on.
RPROP is an interesting variation of batch back-propagation. One of the key differences between RPROP and standard back-prop is that in RPROP each weight and bias has a different, variable, implied learning rate — as opposed to standard back-prop which has one fixed learning rate for all weights and biases. Put differently, with RPROP you don’t specify a learning rate. Instead, each weight has a delta value that increases when the gradient doesn’t change sign (meaning you’re headed in the correct direction) or decreases when the gradient does change sign.
In high-level pseudo-code, for one pass through the training data, RPROP is something like:
for each weight and bias if prev grad and curr grad have same sign increase the previously used delta update weight using new delta else if prev and curr have different signs decrease the previously used delta revert weight to prev value end if prev delta = new delta prev gradient = curr gradient end-for
The algorithm’s details are quite tricky. I suspect that even though RPROP is often more effective than regular back-prop, RPROP isn’t used very often because it’s very tricky to implement, and the fact that the authors of RPRROP created several improved versions of the basic RPROP algorithm, which caused confusion.
Anyway, just for kicks, I coded up an RPROP demo using raw Python. The RPROP version gave slightly better results than the standard back-prop version.
The bottom line is that, in most situations, the relatively minor improvement that RPROP gives isn’t worth the implementation effort. However, like many things in machine learning, I believe it’d be a mistake to dismiss RPROP entirely — algorithms have a way of returning.