Microsoft Solver Foundation Quick Start

The Microsoft Solver Foundation (MSF) is a .NET library that can be used to solve linear programming problems, also called constraint satisfaction problems. The getting-started documentation for MSF is atrociously bad. Here’s a short quick-start guide.

I want to solve this problem, which I found on the Web at

Maximize R = -2x + 5y, where x and y are integers, subject to
100 <= x <= 200
80 <= y <= 170
y >= -x + 200

The problem was actually stated as a word problem involving manufacturing two different kinds of calculators, but we’ll assume you can get to the equations somehow.

In its simplest form, MSF is Microsoft.Solver.dll that can be used in a C# program. First you have to locate an install it. It seems to jump around. I found it at I clicked on the Download Solver Foundation 32-bit link (I prefer using 32-bit rather than 64-bit for demos) which led me to an .msi (installer) file that I saved to my local machine, and then ran. The installation generated a lot of crud plus the DLL at directory C:\Program Files (x86)\ Reference Assemblies\ Microsoft\ Framework\ .NETFramework\ v4.0.

I launched Visual Studio and created a C# Console Application program named SolverFoundationDemo. I added a reference to the MSF DLL. Here’s the code to use MSF to solve the problem:

using System;
using Microsoft.SolverFoundation.Services;

namespace SolverFoundationDemo
  class Program
    static void Main(string[] args)
      Console.WriteLine("\nBegin Solver demo\n");

      var solver = SolverContext.GetContext();
      var model = solver.CreateModel();

      var decisionX = new Decision(Domain.IntegerNonnegative, "X");
      var decisionY = new Decision(Domain.IntegerNonnegative, "Y");

      model.AddGoal("Goal", GoalKind.Maximize,
        (-2 * decisionX) + (5 * decisionY));

      model.AddConstraint("Constraint0", 100 <= decisionX);
      model.AddConstraint("Constraint1", decisionX <= 200);
      model.AddConstraint("Constraint2", 80 <= decisionY);
      model.AddConstraint("Constraint3", decisionY <= 170);
        decisionY >= -decisionX + 200);

      var solution = solver.Solve();

      double x = decisionX.GetDouble();
      double y = decisionY.GetDouble();

      Console.WriteLine("X = " + x + " y = " + y);

      Console.WriteLine("\nEnd Solver demo\n");
    } // Main
  } // Program
} // ns

The program ran and gave a result of

Begin Solver demo

X = 100 y = 170

End Solver demo

Pretty cool. My overall impression is that MSF is very neat, but I couldn’t believe how bad the getting-started documentation was. The documentation gave too much detail instead of giving a super simple example like I’ve tried to do here. It doesn’t matter how cool a technology is if developers can’t get started with it.


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Microsoft 2014 Build Conference – Recap

I spoke at the 2014 Microsoft Build Conference. Build is Microsoft’s conference for software developers. Build used to be called “PDC”, which stood for the Professional Developers Conference. Build 2014 was in San Francisco and ran from Wednesday, April 2 through Friday, April 4. Build had a total of about 8,000 people, which includes attendees, speakers, vendors, and press.

I talked about recent and future trends in neural networks. Here’s an image of the video recording of my talk which you can watch at:


Overall, I’d give this Build conference a rating of “good but not great”. On the plus side, I liked the overall messaging of a vision of unifying software development across many platforms including the desktop, Web, phone, Xbox, and everything else. On the negative side, I felt there were too many talks about phone devices, but that’s just my preference and doesn’t reflect the importance of integrating phone with server systems (as opposed to lightweight phone apps).

Also, the logistics of the keynotes were strange to say the least. Normally at Build, there’d be three keynote talks. Each would be about one hour long. The first keynote would be the morning of the first day, where the CEO would give a vision statement and a few important business or technology announcements. The other two keynotes would be on the mornings of the second and third days, and be delivered by senior VPs. This approach is standard because it works well.

At this year’s Build, the first keynote was three hours long and was delivered by five or six different people, including the CEO who spoke last. After the first two hours of keynote, I was completely fatigued and had little interest in the CEO’s or anyone else’s comments. Common sense tells anyone (except apparently whoever set up the keynotes at Build this year) that three hours of key announcements is an oxymoron. The second keynote was like the first, a punishing three hour marathon on the second day. The keynote structure was incomprehensible.

But of course, developers go to Build to hear about software development. The talks I heard at Build ranged from great to weak. Many of the attendees I talked to said they felt that too many of the talks were aimed at managers instead of at developers. I’d tend to agree. I also heard lots of complaints about the food (breakfast and lunch) at Build. I’d agree — the food at Build 2014 was by far the worst food at any conference I’ve ever spoken at — I’m not exaggerating, the food was not good at all. I’ve got news for the Build organizers: attendees really, really care about the food at a conference.

Anyway, I enjoyed Build a lot. I learned a lot, talked to a lot of interesting people, and more than anything else, got my developer batteries recharged. Build 2014 was good, but could have been great.

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Microsoft 2014 Build Conference – Day 3

Today (Friday, April 4, 2014) was the third and final day of the 2014 Microsoft Build Conference. Build is Microsoft’s conference for software developers. There are a total of about 8,000 people here (which includes attendees, speakers, vendors, press, and so on).

Unlike the previous two days which started with incomprehensibly-long three-hour keynotes, today started immediately with session talks at 9:00 AM. I watched most of “The Future of C#” which really should have been titled “Overview of Roslyn, a C# API to the C# Compiler”. My immediate reaction to that talk was along the lines of, “I’m very happy to use the existing C# compiler, thank you very much. I don’t need an API into the compiler for what I do.”

I gave my talk from 10:30 to 11:30. Even though the conference organizers put my talk in a large room that held 500+ people, the room filled to capacity quickly and the doors had to be shut a full 10 minutes before my talk was scheduled to start. To be honest, I kind of expected this because my talk was clearly designed for developers, unlike too many of the Build talks that targeted managers and non-developers. Here’s my room before anyone was allowed in:


I think my talk went pretty well. I tried to keep things informal and not take myself too seriously — many of the talks and keynotes I’d seen were way too scripted and formal for my tastes. Before my actual talk, I gave a 5-minute intended-to-be-humorous PowerPoint where I showed some images of my impressions of the first few days of Build. Here’s one lasting image that got quite a few chuckles from the audience:


Interestingly, there were three guys in the audience who were college students of mine in the early 1990s. It was good to see them — I actually remembered after scanning my memory for a few minutes. After my talk I was pretty exhausted (psychologically) because public speaking is truly terrifying for me. But I watched two other Build talks in the afternoon, but they were both duds in my opinion — probably a combination of my mental fatigue plus the topics weren’t in my primary areas of interest.

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Microsoft 2014 Build Conference – Day 2

Today (Thursday, April 3, 2014) was the second day of the 2014 Microsoft Build Conference. Build is Microsoft’s conference for software developers. There are a total of about 8,000 people here (which includes attendees, speakers, vendors, press, and so on).

Today started with a three-hour long mega-keynote, consisting of several 30 to 45 minute talks, just like yesterday. Today I am certain I don’t like sitting through three hours of people talking. I don’t care how interesting the information is, three hours is just too long. The good information in a set of talks that last three hours is simply diluted too much. Interestingly, everyone I spoke to (mostly other attendees and speakers) felt pretty much the same way — three hours is just too long.

Aside from the technical session talks, there are two things I especially like about the Build conference. First, there are a set of about 12 Microsoft kiosks in one of the common areas. Each kiosk is manned by a Microsoft subject matter expert and each kiosk has a sign that reads, “Ask Me About xxxx” where xxxx is some technology or service. I chatted up the TypeScript expert and came to really understand the motivation for creating TypeScript in the first place (but I’m still skeptical). I also talked to a WinRT expert. Here’s a photo of the kiosk area:


A second thing I really like about the Build conference is the live streaming of interviews with experts and thought leaders. These interviews are recorded by the Channel 9 service and are very cool indeed. Here’s a photo of the Chanel 9 interview area:


Today I listened to four technical session talks:

1:00 – 2:00 “The Present and Future of .NET in a World of Devices and Services”
2:30 – 3:30 “Thinking for Programmers”
4:00 – 5:00 “Go Mobile with C# and Xamarin”
5:30 – 6:30 “The Next Generation of .NET for Building Applications”

I’d describe all four of these talks as more high level and strategic rather than low level, nuts and bolts tactical. I thought all four were pretty good but none of them wowed me. I’d give them an average score of about 7.5 on a scale of 1 to 10.

My talk on neural networks is tomorrow morning. Even though I’ve given hundreds of talks before, I still get nervous before a big talk where I’ll be speaking to hundreds of people — thousands if you include online viewers — so I know I won’t sleep at all tonight. All in all, I’m really enjoying Build 2014. I think the main value for me is recharging my psychic batteries. I can hardly wait to get back to work in Redmond and build software.

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Microsoft 2014 Build Conference – Day 1

Today (Wednesday, April 2, 2014) was the first day of the 2014 Microsoft Build Conference. Build is Microsoft’s conference for software developers. There are a total of about 8,000 people here (which includes attendees, speakers, vendors, press, and so on).

The format of the beginning of the conference was a bit awkward in my opinion — a mega-keynote lasting 3 hours long, from 8:30 AM to 11:30 AM, given by five or six speakers (I lost count). My first point of feedback to the conference organizers will be that I prefer a more traditional, separate, set of one-hour keynotes.

There was so much information presented in the keynotes it’s hard to pick out what I thought was most interesting or relevant to me. Because I’ve been working with speech recognition lately, I thought the Cortana demo was interesting. Cortana is the (vaguely disturbing according to Wikipedia) AI female voice that’s sort of Microsoft’s answer to Apple’s Siri.

If I had to pluck out a theme of the keynote talks, I’d say it was the notion that developers are feeling pressure to write software that needs to run on multiple platforms — desktop, mobile, Xbox, very small form factor devices — and so Microsoft is focusing on tools and technologies to make this happen. One of the keynote demos showed something where a guy wrote an app (some sports information thing) and then used something in Visual Studio to generate both a mobile app and a PC app. “Write-once, run anywhere” is an idea that’s been around for a while. Because of the multiple-devices theme perhaps, it feels like there’s an excess of Phone and Xbox related talks at Build this year.

Anyway, there’s a ton of energy here at Build. I’ll be speaking about neural networks on Friday. The picture below is one small section of the huge room where lunch was served today. I did a quick scan of the lunch area. I could see about 100 attendees and counted 3 women, so I’d estimate that Build attendees are roughly 95% male.


Posted in Miscellaneous

Microsoft 2014 Build Conference – Day 0

The 2014 Microsoft Build Conference officially starts tomorrow, Wednesday, April 2, 2014, but registration started today at 3:00. The event is in San Francisco this year (as it was in 2013). I’m guessing the event has a total of maybe 8,000 people (attendees, speakers, staff, and vendors) so it’s a pretty big conference as far as software conferences go. This afternoon, there are hundreds of people setting the conference up:


I will be giving a talk on neural networks on Friday morning. This means I’ll be able to sit in on several talks on Wednesday and Thursday. On each day of the conference, there are four time slots, for example, on Tuesday the slots are at 1:00-2:00, 2:00-3:30, 4:00-5:00, and 5:30-6:30. In each time slot there are 10-12 different talks, so . . . doing the math. . . there are a total of about 130 talks.

The registration area is huge, to accommodate the thousands of attendees:


There are, naturally, quite a few talks about Web-related and Cloud-related technologies. I want to hear about TypeScript, mostly because I’m skeptical about it, and Azure, mostly because I’m frustrated by it.

The weather here in San Francisco is rainy and dark. Not unexpected, but it makes it annoying to walk the 1 mile from my hotel (Hilton) to the Moscone Convention Center. San Francisco has pros and cons compared to my favorite place to attend conferences, Las Vegas. Las Vegas has a lot more distractions, which is both a pro and a con I think. San Francisco seems a bit grittier than I remember but that could well be my imagination.

Posted in Miscellaneous

Training a Neural Network using a Genetic Algorithm

By far the most common technique used to train a neural network is to use the back-propagation algorithm. Two other, less common training techniques are to use particle swarm optimization or a genetic algorithm. I wrote an article in the March 2014 issue of Visual Studio Magazine that demonstrates how to train a neural network using a genetic algorithm — “Neural Network How-To: Code an Evolutionary Optimization Solution”. See


The title of the article uses the term Evolutionary Optimization rather than Genetic Algorithm. The two terms are basically more or less interchangeable but I personally use the term genetic algorithm when I encode potential solutions as virtual chromosomes with some form of bit or binary representation, and I use the term evolutionary optimization when I encode a virtual chromosome using real values.

Why consider using an evolutionary optimization algorithm rather than standard back-propagation? The short answer is that training a neural network is as much art as it is science. Back-propagation algorithms are relatively fast, and relatively easy to code (although the algorithm itself is very deep), but are highly sensitive to the values used for the learning rate and momentum free parameters. And sometimes, back-propagation just doesn’t work, getting stuck in some sort of local minimum.

Evolutionary algorithms are relatively slower, somewhat more difficult to encode (although conceptually simpler I think than back-propagation), but are highly sensitive to the value used for the mutation rate free parameter. And sometimes genetic algorithms just don’t work, getting stuck in some sort of local minimum. In short, all neural network training algorithms have pros and cons.

Posted in Machine Learning